Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine
Applied exercise physiology
Grad Group Affiliations
- Exercise Science
Specialties / Focus
- Exercise Physiology
- Musculoskeletal Medicine
- American College of Sports Medicine
- MD St. Louis University School of Medicine
- BS Chemical Engineering University of Missouri-Rolla
National Advisory Committees (active as of March 2018)
- Ultra Sports Science Foundation, Founder
- International Trail Running Association, Member of Medical Commission
Original Scientific Publications (as of March 2018)
1. Hoffman MD, Williams CA, Lind AR. Change in isometric function following rhythmic exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1985;54:177-183.
2. Hoffman MD. Cardiovascular fitness and training in quadriplegics and paraplegics. Sports Med 1986;3:312-330.
3. Brice AG, Forster HV, Pan LG, Funahashi A, Lowry TF, Murphy CL, Hoffman MD. Ventilatory and PaCO2 responses to voluntary and electrically induced leg exercise. J Appl Physiol 1988;64:218-225.
4. Brice AG, Forster HV, Pan LG, Funahashi A, Hoffman MD, Murphy CL, Lowry TF. Is the hyperpnea of muscular contractions critically dependent on spinal afferents? J Appl Physiol 1988;64 (1): 226-233.
5. Hoffman MD, Mitz M, Luisi M, Melville, BR. Paired study of the dorsal cutaneous ulnar and superficial radial sensory nerves. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69:591-594.
6. Hoffman MD, Lyman KA. Medical needs at high school football games in Milwaukee. J Orthop Sports Phys Therapy 1988;10:167-171.
7. Wilke NA, Sheldahl LM, Levandoski SG, Hoffman MD, Tristani FE. Weight carrying versus handgrip exercise testing in men with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:736-740.
8. Andresen BL, Hoffman MD, Barton LW. Field conditions and other factors associated with high school football game injuries. Wi Med J 1989 Oct:28-31.
9. Levandoski SG, Sheldahl LM, Wilke NA, Tristani FE, Hoffman, MD. Cardiorespiratory responses of coronary artery disease patients to arm and leg cycle ergometry. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabil 1990;10:39-44.
10. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Foley PJ, Brice AG. Physiological responses to different roller skiing techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990;22:391-396.
11. Brown DR, Forster HV, Pan LG, Brice AG, Murphy CL, Lowry TF, Gutting SM, Funahashi A, Hoffman M, Powers S. Ventilatory responses of spinal cord-lesioned subjects to electrically induced exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990;68:2312-2321.
12. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Bota B, Mandli M, Jones GM. Influence of body mass on energy cost of roller skiing. Int J Sport Biomech 1990;6:374-385.
13. Connelly TP, Sheldahl LM, Tristani FE, Levandoski SG, Kalkhoff RK, Hoffman MD, Kalbfleisch JH. Effect of central hypervolemia on the plasma catecholamine response to exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990;69:651-656.
14. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS. Physiological responses to different cross country skiing techniques on level terrain. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990;22:841-848.
15. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Jones GM, Bota B, Mandli M. Effects of technique and pole grip on physiological demands of roller skiing on level terrain. Int J Sports Med 1991;12:468-473.
16. Wilke NA, Sheldahl LM, Levandoski SG, Hoffman MD, Dougherty SM, Tristani FE. Transfer effect of upper extremity training to weight carrying in men with ischemic heart disease. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabil 1991;11:365-372.
17. Hoffman MD, Jones GM, Bota B, Mandli M, Clifford PS. In-line skating: physiological responses and comparison with roller skiing. Int J Sports Med 1992;13:137-144.
18. Hoffman MD, Gilson PM, Westenburg TM, Spencer WA. Biathlon shooting performance after exercise of different intensities. Int J Sports Med 1992;13:270-273.
19. Hoffman MD, Street GM. Characterization of the heart rate response during biathlon. Int J Sports Med 1992;13:390-394.
20. Sheldahl LM, Wilke N, Dougherty S, Levandoski S, Hoffman MD, Tristani FE. Effect of age and coronary artery disease on response to snow shoveling. J Am Col Cardiol 1992;20:1111-1117.
21. Sauvage LR, Myklebust BM, Crow-Pan J, Novak S, Millington P, Hoffman MD, Hartz AJ, Rudman D. A clinical trial of strengthening and aerobic exercise to improve gait and balance in elderly male nursing home residents. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1992;71:333-342.
22. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS. Physiological aspects of competitive cross country skiing. J Sports Sci 1992;10:3-27.
23. Hoffman MD. Physiological comparisons of cross-country skiing techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992;24:1023-1032.
24. Snyder AC, O'Hagan KP, Clifford PS, Hoffman MD, Foster C. Exercise responses to in-line skating: comparisons to running and cycling. Int J Sports Med 1993;14:38-42.
25. Dougherty SM, Sheldahl LM, Wilke NA, Levandoski SG, Hoffman MD, Tristani FE. Physiological responses to shoveling and thermal stress in men with cardiac disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25:790-795.
26. Watts PB, Hoffman MD, Sulentic JE, Drobish KM, Gibbons TP, Newbury VS, Mittelstadt SW, O'Hagan KP, Clifford PS. Physiological responses to specific maximal exercise tests for cross-country skiing. Can J Appl Physiol 1993;18:359-365.
27. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Watts PB, Drobish KM, Gibbons TP, Newbury VS, Sulentic JE, Mittelstadt SW, O'Hagan KP. Physiological comparison of uphill roller skiing: diagonal stride versus double pole. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994;26:1284-1289.
28. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Bender F. Effect of velocity on cycle rate and length for three roller skiing techniques. J Appl Biomech 1995;11:257-266.
29. Mittelstadt SW, Hoffman MD, Watts PB, O'Hagan KP, Sulentic JE, Drobish KM, Gibbons TP, Newbury VS, Clifford PS. Lactate response to uphill roller skiing with the diagonal stride and double pole techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:1563-1568.
30. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Watts PB, O'Hagan KP, Mittelstadt SW. Delta efficiency of uphill roller skiing with the double pole and diagonal stride techniques. Can J Appl Physiol 1995;20:465-479.
31. Zeni AI, Hoffman MD, Clifford PS. Relationships among heart rate, lactate concentration and perceived exertion for different types of rhythmic exercise in females. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:237-241.
32. Zeni AI, Hoffman MD, Clifford PS. Energy expenditure with indoor exercise machines. JAMA 1996;275:1424-1427.
33. Karvelas BR, Hoffman MD, Zeni AI. Acute effects of acupuncture on physiological and psychological responses to cycle ergometry. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:1256-1259.
34. Hoffman MD, Kassay KM, Zeni AI, Clifford PS. Does the amount of exercising muscle mass alter the aerobic demand of dynamic exercise? Eur J Applied Physiol 1996;74:541-547.
35. Hoffman MD, Sheldahl LM, Buley KJ, Sanford PR. Physiological comparison of walking among bilateral above-knee amputee and able-bodied subjects, and a model to account for the differences in metabolic cost. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:385-392.
36. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Varkey B. Acute effects of ski waxing on pulmonary function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:1379-1382.
37. Hoffman MD. Principles of sports injury rehabilitation. Wi Med J 1997;96(12)38-48.
38. Salvi FJ, Hoffman MD, Sabharwal S, Clifford PS. Physiological comparison of forward and reverse wheelchair propulsion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:36-40.
39. Hoffman MD, Clifford PS, Snyder AC, O'Hagan KP, Mittelstadt SW, Roberts MM, Drummond HA, Gaskill SE. Physiological effects of technique and rolling resistance in uphill roller skiing. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:311-317.
40. Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Candau RB, Buckwalter JB, Clifford PS. Effect of rolling resistance on poling forces and metabolic demands of roller skiing. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:755-762.
41. Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Candau RB, Buckwalter JB, Clifford PS. Cycle rate variations in roller ski skating: effects on oxygen uptake and poling forces. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:521-525.
42. Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Candau RB, Clifford PS. Poling forces during roller skiing: effects of grade. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1637-1644.
43. Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Candau RB, Clifford PS. Poling forces during roller skiing: effects of technique and speed. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1645-1653.
44. Groslambert A, Candau R, Hoffman MD, Bardy B, Rouillon JD. Validation of simple tests of biathlon shooting ability. Int J Sports Med 1999;20:179-182.
45. Grappe F, Candau R, Barbier B, Hoffman MD, Belli AR, Rouillon JD. Influence of tyre pressure and vertical load on coefficient of rolling resistance and simulated cycling performance. Ergonomics 1999;10:1361-1371.
46. Candau RB, Grappe F, Menard M, Barbier B, Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Belli AR, Rouillon JD. Simplified deceleration method for assessment of resistive forces in cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1441-1447.
47. Millet GP, Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Candau RB. Alterations in running economy and mechanics after maximal cycling in triathletes: influence of performance level. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:1-6.
48. Groslambert A, Hintzy F, Hoffman MD, Dugue B, Rouillon JD. Validation of a rating scale of perceived exertion in young children. Int J Sports Med 2001;22:116-119.
49. Hoffman MD, Millet GY, Hoch AZ, Candau RB. Assessment of wheelchair drag resistance: using a coasting deceleration technique. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003;82:880-889.
50. Hoffman MD, Millet GY, Candau R, Rouillon JD. Evaluation of a theoretical model to quantify the sources of metabolic cost in walking. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2004;83:353-362.
51. Hoffman MD, Shepanski MA, Ruble SB, Valic Z, Buckwalter JB, Clifford PS. Intensity and duration threshold for aerobic exercise-induced analgesia to pressure pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1183-1187.
52. Hoffman MD, Shepanski MA, MacKenzie SP, Clifford PS. Experimentally-induced pain perception is acutely reduced by aerobic exercise in persons with chronic low back pain. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005;42 (2):183-190.
53. Ruble SB, Hoffman MD, Shepanski MA, Valic Z, Buckwalter JB, Clifford PS. Thermal pain perception after aerobic exercise. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1019-1023.
54. Hoffman MD, Lee J, Zhao H, Tsodikov A. Pain perception after running a 100-mile ultramarathon. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:1042-1048.
55. Hoffman MD, Hoffman DR. Does aerobic exercise improve pain perception and mood? A review of the evidence related to healthy and chronic pain subjects. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2007;11(2):93-7.
56. Hoffman MD, Hoffman DR. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89:358-363.
57. Hoffman MD. Anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathoners. Int J Sports Med 2008;29:1-4.
58. Hoffman MD. Ultramarathon trail running comparison of performance-matched men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:1681-1686.
59. Hoffman MD, Wegelin J. The Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run: participation and performance trends. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41:2191-2198.
60. Hoffman MD. Performance trends in 161-km ultramarathons. Int J Sports Med 2010;31:31-37.
61. Hoffman MD, Lebus DK, Ganong AC, Casazza GA, Van Loan MD. Body composition of 161-km ultramarathoners. Int J Sports Med 2010;31:106-109.
62. Moore MN, Vandenakker-Albanese C, Hoffman MD. Aggressive return to running following lumbar disc herniation: A case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:803-805.
63. Lebus DK, Casazza GA, Hoffman MD, Van Loan MD. Can changes in body mass and total body water accurately predict hyponatremia after a 161-km running race? Clin J Sports Med 2010;20:193-199.
64. Hoffman MD, Ong JC, Wang G. Historical analysis of participation in 161-km ultramarathons in North America. Int J History Sport 2010;27 (11):1877-1891.
65. Bruso JR, Hoffman MD, Rogers IR, Lee L, Towle G, Hew-Butler T. Rhabdomyolysis and hyponatremia: a cluster of five cases at the 161-km 2009 Western States Run Endurance. Wilderness Environ Med 2010;21:303-308.
66. Wegelin JA, Hoffman MD. Variables associated with odds of finishing and finish time in a 161-km ultramarathon. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;111:145-153.
67. George KP, Warburton DE, Oxborough D, Scott JM, Esch BT, Williams K, Charlesworth S, Foulds H, Oxborough A, Hoffman MD, Shave R. Upper limits of physiological cardiac adaptation in ultramarathon runners. J Am Col Cardiol 2011;57(6):754-755.
68. Oxborough D, Shave R, Warburton D, Williams K, Oxborough A, Charlesworth S, Foulds H, Hoffman MD, Birch K, George K. Dilatation and dysfunction of the right ventricle immediately following ultra-endurance exercise: exploratory insights from conventional 2-dimensional and speckle tracking echocardiography. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2011;4:253-263.
69. Hoffman MD, Fogard K. Factors related to successful completion of a 161-km ultramarathon. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2011;6:25-37.
70. Rogers IR, Hook G, Stuempfle KJ, Hoffman MD, Hew-Butler T. An intervention study of oral versus intravenous hypertonic saline administration in ultramarathon runners with exercise-associated hyponatremia: a preliminary randomized trial. Clin J Sports Med 2011;21(3):200-203.
71. Hew-Butler T, Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ, Rogers, IR, Morgenthaler NG, Verbalis JG. Changes in copeptin and bioactive vasopressin in runners with and without hyponatremia. Clin J Sports Med 2011;21(3):211-217.
72. Hoffman MD, Donaghe HE. Physiological responses to body-weight supported treadmill exercise in healthy adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:960-966.
73. Krabak BJ, Hoffman MD, Millet GY, Chimes GP. Barefoot Running. PM R 2011;3(12):1142-1149.
74. Parise C, Hoffman MD. Influence of temperature and performance level on pacing a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2011;6:243-251.
75. Stuempfle KJ, Hoffman MD, Weschler LB, Rogers IR, Hew-Butler T. Race diet of finishers and non-finishers in a 100 mile (161 km) mountain footrace. J Am Col Nutr 2011;30(6):529-535.
76. Hoffman, MD, Stuempfle KJ, Rogers IR, Weschler LB, Hew-Butler T. Hyponatremia in the 2009 161-km Western States Endurance Run. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2012;7(1):6-10.
77. Hoffman MD, Fogard K. Demographic characteristics of 161-km ultramarathon runners. Res Sports Med 2012;20:59-69.
78. Hoffman MD, Ingwerson JL, Rogers IR, Stuempfle KJ, Hew-Butler T. Increasing creatine phosphokinase concentrations at the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. Wilderness Environ Med 2012;23:56-60.
79. Coler C, Hoffman MD, Towle G, Hew-Butler T. Hyponatremia in an 85 year old hiker: When depletion plus dilution produces delirium. Wilderness Environ Med 2012;23:153-157.
80. Millet GY, Hoffman MD, Morin JB. Sacrificing economy to improve running performance – a reality in the ultramarathon? J Appl Physiology 2012;113(3):513.
81. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ, Fogard K, Hew-Butler T, Winger J, Weiss RH. Urine dipstick analysis for identification of runners susceptible to acute kidney injury following an ultramarathon. J Sports Sci 2013;31(1):20-31.
82. Stuempfle KJ, Hoffman MD, Hew-Butler T. Association of gastrointestinal distress in ultramarathoners with race diet. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metabol 2013;23:103-109.
83. Hoffman MD, Hew-Butler T, Stuempfle KJ. Exercise-associated hyponatremia and hydration status in 161-km ultramarathons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013;45:784-791.
84. Winger J, Hoffman MD, Hew-Butler T, Stuempfle KJ, Dugas J, Fogard K, Dugas L. Physiology and hydration beliefs affect race behavior but not post-race sodium in 161-km ultramarathon finishers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2013;8:536-541.
85. Hoffman MD, Fogard K, Winger J, Hew-Butler T, Stuempfle KJ. Characteristics of 161-km ultramarathon finishers developing exercise-associated hyponatremia. Res Sports Med 2013;21:164-175.
86. Bennett BL, Hew-Butler T, Hoffman MD, Rogers IR, Rosner MH. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia. Wilderness Environ Med 2013;24:228-240.
87. Hew-Butler T, Stuempfle KJ, Hoffman MD. Bone: An acute buffer of plasma sodium during exhaustive exercise? Hormone Metabolic Res 2013;45(10):697-700.
88. Kupchak BR, Volk BM, Kunces LJ, Kraemer WJ, Hoffman MD, Phinney SD, Volek JS. Alterations in coagulatory and fibrinolytic systems following an ultra-marathon. Eur J Appl Physiol 2013;113:2705-2712.
89. Hoffman MD, Krishnan E. Exercise behavior of ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the ULTRA Study. J Strength Cond Res 2013;27(11):2939-2945.
90. Lewis D, Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ, Owen BE, Rogers IR, Verbalis JG, Hew-Butler T. The need for salt: Does a relationship exist between Cystic Fibrosis and exercise-associated hyponatremia? J Strength Cond Res 2014;28(3):807-813.
91. Hoffman MD, Chen L, Krishnan E. Body mass index and its correlates in 1,212 ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the ULTRA Study. J Phys Act Health 2014;11(8):1549-1555.
92. Owen BE, Rogers IR, Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ, Lewis D, Fogard K, Verbalis JG, Hew-Butler T. Efficacy of oral vs. intravenous hypertonic saline in runners with hyponatremia. J Sci Med Sport 2014;17(5):457-462.
93. Kasmer ME, Wren JJ, Hoffman MD. Foot strike pattern and gait changes during a 161-km ultramarathon. J Strength Cond Res 2014;28(5):1343-1350.
94. Hoffman MD, Krishnan E. Health and exercise-related medical issues among 1,212 ultramarathon runners: Baseline findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study. PLoS ONE 2014;9(1): e83867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083867
95. Hoffman MD. Pacing by winners of a 161-km mountain ultramarathon. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2014;9:1054-1056.
96. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ. Hydration strategies, weight change and performance in a 161-km ultramarathons. Res Sports Med 2014;22:213-225.
97. Kupchak BR, Kraemer WJ, Hoffman MD, Phinney SD, Volek JS. The impact of an ultramarathon on hormonal and biochemical parameters in men. Wilderness Environ Med 2014;25:278-288.
98. Hoffman MD, Pasternak A, Rogers IR, Khodaee M, Hill JC, Townes DA, Scheer BV, Krabak BJ, Basset P, Lipman GS. Medical services at ultra-endurance foot races in remote environments: medical issues and consensus guidelines. Sports Med 2014;44:1055-1069.
99. Le Cara E, Marcus RL, Dempsey AR, Hoffman MD, Hebert JJ. Morphology versus function: the relationship between lumbar multifidus intramuscular adipose tissue and muscle function among patients with low back pain. Archives Phys Med Rehabil 2014;95:1846-1852.
100. Utomi V, Oxborough D, Ashley E, Lord R, Stembridge M, Shave R, Hoffman MD, Whyte G, Somauroo J, Sharma S, George K. Predominance of normal left ventricular geometry in the male ‘athletes heart’. Heart 2014;100:1264-71.
101. Bennett BL, Hew-Butler T, Hoffman MD, Rogers IR, Rosner MH. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia: 2014 update. Wilderness Environ Med 2014;25:S30-S42.
102. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ, Sullivan K, Weiss RH. Exercise-associated hyponatremia with exertional rhabdomyolysis: Importance of proper treatment. Clin Nephrol 2015;83:235-242.
103. Hoffman MD, Parise C. Longitudinal assessment of age and experience on performance in 161-km ultramarathons. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2015;10:93-8.
104. McGowan V, Hoffman MD. Characterization of medical care at the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. Wilderness Environ Med 2015;26:29-35.
105. Hew-Butler T, Holexa BT, Fogard K, Stuempfle KJ, Hoffman MD. Comparison of body composition before and after a 161-km ultramarathon using DEXA, BIS and BIA. Int J Sports Med 2015;36:169-74.
106. Pearce EA, Myers TM, Hoffman MD. Three cases of severe hyponatremia during a river run in Grand Canyon National Park. Wilderness Environ Med 2015;26:189-195.
107. Lord R, Somauroo J, Stembridge M, Jain N, Hoffman MD, Keith K, Jones J, Shave R, Haddad F, Ashley E, Oxborough D. The right ventricle following ultra-endurance exercise: insights from novel echocardiography and 12-lead electrocardiography. Eur J Applied Physiol 2015;115:71-80.
108. Hoffman MD, Rogers IR, Joslin J, Asplund CA, Roberts WO, Levine BD. Managing collapsed or seriously ill participants of ultra-endurance events in remote environments. Sports Med 2015;45:201-12.
109. Høeg TB, Corrigan GK, Hoffman MD. An investigation of ultramarathon-associated visual impairment. Wilderness Environ Med 2015;26:200-204.
110. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ. Sodium supplementation and exercise-associated hyponatremia during prolonged exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015;47(9):1781-1787.
111. Stuempfle KJ, Hoffman MD. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon. J Sports Sci 2015;33:1814-1821.
112. Myers TM, Hoffman MD. Hiker fatality from exercise-associated hyponatremia. Wilderness Environ Med 2015 2015;26(3):371-374.
113. Utomi V, Oxborough D, Ashley E, Lord R, Fletcher S, Stembridge M, Shave R, Hoffman MD, Whyte G, Somauroo J, Sharma S, George K. The impact of chronic endurance and resistance training upon the right ventricular phenotype in male athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 2015;115(8):1673-82.
114. Hoffman MD, Myers TM. Case study: Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia in an endurance runner despite sodium supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2015;25(6):603-606.
115. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ. Muscle cramping during a 161-km ultramarathon: Comparison of characteristics of those with and without cramping. Sports Med - Open 2015;1(1):8. Epub 2015 May 21.
116. Joslin J, Hoffman MD, Rogers I, Worthing R, Ladbrook M, Mularella J. Special considerations in medical screening for participants in remote endurance events. Sports Med 2015;45(8):1121-1131.
117a. Hew-Butler T, Rosner MH, Fowkes-Godek S, Dugas JP, Hoffman MD, Lewis DP, Maughan RJ, Miller KC, Montain SJ, Rehrer NJ, Roberts WO, Rogers IR, Siegel AJ, Stuempfle KJ, Winger JM, Verbalis JG. Statement of the Third International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015. Clin J Sports Med 2015;25:303-320.
117b. Hew-Butler T, Rosner MH, Fowkes-Godek S, Dugas JP, Hoffman MD, Lewis DP, Maughan RJ, Miller KC, Montain SJ, Rehrer NJ, Roberts WO, Rogers IR, Siegel AJ, Stuempfle KJ, Winger JM, Verbalis JG. Statement of the Third International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015. Br J Sports Med 2015;49(22):1432-1446.
118. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ, Valentino T. Sodium intake during an ultramarathon does not prevent muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, or nausea. Sport Med Open 2015 Dec;1(1):39.
119. Hoffman MD, Weiss RH. Does exercise-related acute kidney injury from an ultramarathon increase the risk for greater subsequent injury? Clin J Sport Med 2016;26(5):417-422.
120. Stuempfle KJ, Valentino T, Hew-Butler T, Hecht FM, Hoffman MD. Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during an ultramarathon. J Sports Sci 2016;34(17):1662-1668.
121. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ. Does oral buffered sodium supplementation reduce nausea and vomiting during an ultramarathon? Res Sports Med 2016;24(1):94-103.
122. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ. Is sodium supplementation necessary to avoid dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat? J Strength Cond Res 2016;30(3):615-620.
123. Hoffman, MD. Injuries and health considerations in ultramarathon runners. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2016;27(1):203-216.
124. Hoffman MD, Badowski N, Chin J, Stuempfle KJ. A randomized controlled trial of massage and pneumatic compression for ultramarathon recovery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):320-326.
125. Lord R, George K, Somauroo J, Jain N, Reese K, Hoffman MD, Haddad F, Ashley E, Jones H, Oxborough D. Exploratory insights from the right-sided electrocardiogram following prolonged endurance exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 2016;16(8):1014-1022.
126. Valentino T, Stuempfle KJ, Kern M Hoffman MD,. The influence of hydration state on thermoregulation during a 161-km ultramarathon. Res Sports Med 2016;24(3):212-221.
127. Hoffman MD, Cotter JD, Goulet ED, Laursen PB. View: Is drinking to thirst adequate to appropriately maintain hydration status during prolonged endurance exercise? Yes. Wilderness Environ Med 2016;27(2):192-195.
128. Hoffman MD, Cotter JD, Goulet ED, Laursen PB. Rebuttal from yes. Wilderness Environ Med 2016;27(2):198-200.
129. Lord R, George KP, Somauroo J, Stembridge M, Jain N, Hoffman MD, Shave R, Haddad F, Ashley E, Jones H, Heemels A, Oxborough D. Alterations in cardiac mechanics following ultra-endurance exercise: Insights from left and right ventricular area-deformation loops. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2016;29(9):879-887.
130. Hoffman MD. Etiological foundation for practical strategies to prevent exercise-related foot blisters. Curr Sports Med Rep 2016;15(5):330-335.
131. Hoffman MD, Bross TL, Hamilton RT. Are we being drowned by overhydration advice on the Internet? Physician Sportsmed 2016;44(4):343-348.
132. Hoffman MD, Badowski N, Chin J, Stuempfle KJ. Determinants of recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon. J Sports Sci 2017;35:669-677.
133. Hoffman MD, Joslin J, Rogers IR. Management of suspected fluid balance issues in participants of wilderness endurance events. Curr Sports Med Rep 2017;16:98-102.
134. Hoffman MD, Valentino TR, Stuempfle KS, Hassid B. A placebo controlled trial of riboflavin for enhancement of ultramarathon recovery. Sports Med Open 2017 Dec;3(1):14.
135. Nudell N, Hoffman MD. Acute mental status changes following an ultramarathon. British Paramedic J 2017;2(1):16-19.
136. Heapy AM, Hoffman MD, Verhagen HH, Thompson SW, Dhamija P, Sandford FJ, Hepi OR, Cooper MC. A randomized controlled trial of manual therapy and pneumatic compression for recovery from prolonged running – An extended study. Res Sports Med (in press 4/12/17)
137. Hoffman MD, Goulet ED, Maughan RJ. Considerations in the use of body mass change to estimate change in hydration status during prolonged running. Sports Med 2018;48(2):243-250.
138. Hoffman MD, Krouse R. Ultra-obligatory running among ultramarathon runners. Res Sports Med 2018 Jan 29:1-11. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2018.1431533. [Epub ahead of print]
139. Rothwell O, George K, Somauroo J, Lord R, Stembridge M, Shave R, Hoffman MD, Wilson M, Ashley E, Haddad F, Eijsvogels TMH., Oxborough D. Right ventricular structure and function in the veteran ultramarathon runner: Is there evidence for chronic maladaptation? J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2018 Jan 3. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.11.021. [Epub ahead of print]
140. Hoffman MD, Agnish V. Functional outcome from sacroiliac joint prolotherapy in patients with sacroiliac joint instability. Complement Ther Med 2018;37:64-68.
141. Hoffman MD, Longobardi D, Burt C, Nardi T. GPS tracker enabled rescue of a lost runner during a wilderness ultramarathon: A case report. Curr Sports Med Rep (in press 2/9/18)
142. Hoffman MD. Proper hydration during ultra-endurance activities. Sports Med Arthrosc (in press 2/21/18)