Andrew Ishida

Andrew Ishida

Position Title
Professor Emeritus

Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, College of Biological Sciences
Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine


Research Interests

A few inches separate our eyes from the nearest subcortical brain regions they communicate with. Two different kinds of signals could traverse this distance and thus be used to report the changes in incident light that our eyes detect. The simplest of these are identical from moment to moment, and in all of the cells that conduct the afferent signals of the eye. A different type of signal could vary – for example, between cell types, or as ambient light intensity changes, or if our eyes generate signals frequently. Our experiments asked whether these signals are simple during daytime vision and, if not, then “how, when, and why” they become more complicated. We performed these studies on individual retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve; on amacrine and interplexiform cells in the eye that regulate signal generation by retinal ganglion cells; and by analyzing signals recorded in the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. Our early studies focused on how retinal ganglion cells generate signals. We then studied whether and how dopamine (released during daytime by some amacrine and interplexiform cells) alters retinal ganglion cell signals. Our later studies examined how these signals travel along and beyond the optic nerve. These projects used patch-clamp, fast voltage-clamp, multielectrode arrays, suction electrodes, sharp metal electrodes, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, calcium imaging, primary cell culture, organotypic culture, and both ex vivo and in vivo spike recording.

Grad Group Affiliation



Honors and Awards

  • ASUCD Excellence in Education Award (College of Biological Sciences)
  • Outstanding Service Award (Neuroscience Graduate Group)


    • 1981 PhD (Biology) University of California, Los Angeles


    Fogli Iseppe A, Ogata G, Johnson JS, Partida GJ, Johnson N, Passaglia CL, Ishida AT (2020). Extraretinal spike normalization in retinal ganglion cell axons. eNeuro 7(2): 0504-19. 

    Partida GJ, Fasoli A, Fogli Iseppe A, Ogata G, Johnson JS, Thambiayiah V, Passaglia CL, Ishida AT (2018). Autophosphorylated CaMKII facilitates spike propagation in rat optic nerve. Journal of Neuroscience 38: 8087-8105. (Cover article)

    Fasoli A, Dang JA, Johnson JS, Gouw AH, Fogli Iseppe A, Ishida AT (2017). Somatic and neuritic spines on tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells of rat retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 525: 1707-1730.

    Stradleigh TW, Ishida AT (2015). Fixation strategies for retinal immunohistochemistry. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 48: 181-202.

    Stradleigh TW, Greenberg KP, Partida GJ, Pham A, Ishida AT (2015). Moniliform deformation of retinal ganglion cells by formaldehyde-based fixatives. Journal of Comparative Neurology 523: 545-564. (Cover article)

    Ogata G, Stradleigh TW, Partida GJ, Ishida AT (2012). Dopamine and full-field illumination activate D1 and D2-D5-type receptors in adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Comparative Neurology 520: 4032-4049.

    Partida GJ, Stradleigh TW, Ogata G, Godzdanker I, Ishida AT (2012). Thy1 associates with the cation channel subunit HCN4 in adult rat retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 53: 1696-1703.

    Stradleigh TW, Ogata G, Partida GJ, Oi H, Greenberg KP, Krempely KS, Ishida AT (2011). Colocalization of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunits in rat retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Comparative Neurology 519: 2546-2573.

    Hayashida Y, Varela C, Ogata G, Partida GJ, Oi H, Stradleigh TW, Lee SC, Felipe A, Ishida AT (2009). Inhibition of adult rat retinal ganglion cells by D1-type dopamine receptor activation. Journal of Neuroscience 29: 15001-15016.

    Lee SC, AT Ishida (2007). I(h) without K(ir) in adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 97: 3790-3799

    Partida GJ, SC Lee, L Haft-Candell, GS Nichols, AT Ishida (2004). DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity in AII amacrine cells of rat retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 480: 251-263. (Cover article)

    Hayashida Y, AT Ishida (2004). Dopamine receptor activation can reduce voltage-gated Na+ current by modulating both entry into and recovery from inactivation. Journal of Neurophysiology 92: 3134-3141

    Lee SC, Y Hayashida, AT Ishida (2003). Availability of low-threshold Ca2+ current in retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 90: 3888-3901

    Vaquero CF, A Pignatelli, GJ Partida, AT Ishida (2001). A dopamine- and protein kinase A-dependent mechanism for network adaptation in retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Neuroscience 21:8624-8635