Andrew Ishida

Andrew Ishida

Position Title
Professor Emeritus

  • Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, College of Biological Sciences

Research Interests

A few inches separate our eyes from the nearest subcortical brain regions they communicate with. Two different kinds of signals could traverse this distance and thus be used to report the changes in incident light that our eyes detect. The simplest of these are identical from moment to moment, and in all of the cells that conduct the afferent signals of the eye. A different type of signal could vary – for example, between cell types, or as ambient light intensity changes, or if our eyes generate signals frequently. Our experiments asked whether these signals are simple during daytime vision and, if not, then “how, when, and why” they become more complicated. We performed these studies on individual retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve; on amacrine and interplexiform cells in the eye that regulate signal generation by retinal ganglion cells; and by analyzing signals recorded in the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. Our early studies focused on how retinal ganglion cells generate signals. We then studied whether and how dopamine (released during daytime by some amacrine and interplexiform cells) alters retinal ganglion cell signals. Our later studies examined how these signals travel along and beyond the optic nerve. These projects used patch-clamp, fast voltage-clamp, multielectrode arrays, suction electrodes, sharp metal electrodes, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, calcium imaging, primary cell culture, organotypic culture, and both ex vivo and in vivo spike recording.

Graduate Group Affiliation

Education and Degree(s)
  • 1981 Ph.D. in Biology, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Fogli Iseppe A, Ogata G, Johnson JS, Partida GJ, Johnson N, Passaglia CL, Ishida AT (2020). Extraretinal spike normalization in retinal ganglion cell axons. eNeuro 7(2): 0504-19. 
  • Partida GJ, Fasoli A, Fogli Iseppe A, Ogata G, Johnson JS, Thambiayiah V, Passaglia CL, Ishida AT (2018). Autophosphorylated CaMKII facilitates spike propagation in rat optic nerve. Journal of Neuroscience 38: 8087-8105. (Cover article)
  • Fasoli A, Dang JA, Johnson JS, Gouw AH, Fogli Iseppe A, Ishida AT (2017). Somatic and neuritic spines on tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells of rat retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 525: 1707-1730.
  • Stradleigh TW, Ishida AT (2015). Fixation strategies for retinal immunohistochemistry. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 48: 181-202.
  • Stradleigh TW, Greenberg KP, Partida GJ, Pham A, Ishida AT (2015). Moniliform deformation of retinal ganglion cells by formaldehyde-based fixatives. Journal of Comparative Neurology 523: 545-564. (Cover article)