Santiago Ramirez

Santiago Ramirez

Position Title
Associate Professor

Department of Evolution and Ecology, College of Biological Sciences
Center for Population Biology

4337 Storer Hall

Research Interests

Evolution, adaptation, and speciation of plant-pollinator mutualisms. Comparative and population genomics of bees and their associated host plants. Phylogenetics, chemical ecology, neuroethology, and natural history of insect-plant interactions.

Grad Group Affiliations

  • Population Biology

Specialties / Focus

  • Behavior, Physiology and Morphology
  • Molecular Evolution
  • Systematics and Comparative Biology


  • EVE EVE101 Evolution, Fall

Field Sites

  • Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, US (California, Florida)

Honors and Awards

  • David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellow (2014-2019)
  • NSF-DEB (Sole PI) Functional, Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Chemical Courtship Signals in Euglossine Bees (2015-2019)


    • 2008 Ph.D. Harvard University
    • 2001 B.Sc. Universidad de los Andes


    Ramírez, SR, C Hernandez, A Link, MM Lopez-Uribe, (2015) Seasonal cycles, phylogenetic assembly, and functional diversity of orchid bee communities Ecology and Evolution 5(9):1896-1907

    Karban R, WC Wetzel, K Shiojiri, S Ishizaki, SR Ramírez,JD Blande (2014) Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush. New Phytologist 204: 380-385

    Dong-Hwan, C, SR Ramírez , ND Tsutsui (2012) A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons. Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:176-187

    Pringle EG, SR Ramírez, TC Bonbroke, DM Gordon, R Dirzo (2012) Cryptic diversity and population structure in widespread Azteca plant-ants from the northern Neotropics. Molecular Ecology21:3576-3592

    Ramírez SR , T Eltz, MK Fujiwara, B Goldman-Huertas, G Gerlach, ND Tsutsui, NE Pierce (2011) Asynchronous diversification in a specialized plant-pollinator mutualism. Science 333:1742-1746 PDF

    Ramírez SR , T Eltz, F Fritzsch, R Pemberton, EG Pringle, ND Tsutsui (2010) Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36: 873-884 PDF

    Ramírez SR , DW Roubik, C Skov, NE Pierce (2010) Phylogeny, diversification patterns and historical biogeography of euglossine orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100(3): 552-572 PDF

    Ramírez SR , C Nieh, TB Quental, DW Roubik, VL Imperatriz-Fonseca, NE Pierce (2010) A molecular phylogeny of the stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera: Meliponini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(2): 519-525

    Ramírez SR (2009) Orchid bees. Current Biology 19(2):1061-1063. [PDF]

    Zimmermann, Y, SR Ramírez , T Eltz (2009) Chemical niche differentiation among sympatric orchid bees. Ecology 90(11): 2994-3008. PDF

    Ramírez, SR, B Gravendeel, RB Singer, CR Marshall, NE Pierce (2007) Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448:1042-1045 PDF