Santiago Ramirez

Santiago Ramirez

Position Title
Associate Professor

Department of Evolution and Ecology
Center for Population Biology

4337 Storer Hall

Research Interests

Evolution, adaptation, and speciation of plant-pollinator mutualisms. Comparative and population genomics of bees and their associated host plants. Phylogenetics, chemical ecology, neuroethology, and natural history of insect-plant interactions.

Grad Group Affiliations

  • Population Biology

Specialties / Focus

  • Behavior, Physiology and Morphology
  • Molecular Evolution
  • Systematics and Comparative Biology


  • EVE EVE101 Evolution, Fall

Field Sites

  • Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, US (California, Florida)

Honors and Awards

  • David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellow (2014-2019)
  • NSF-DEB (Sole PI) Functional, Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Chemical Courtship Signals in Euglossine Bees (2015-2019)


    • 2008 Ph.D. Harvard University
    • 2001 B.Sc. Universidad de los Andes


    Ramírez, SR, C Hernandez, A Link, MM Lopez-Uribe, (2015) Seasonal cycles, phylogenetic assembly, and functional diversity of orchid bee communities Ecology and Evolution 5(9):1896-1907

    Karban R, WC Wetzel, K Shiojiri, S Ishizaki, SR Ramírez,JD Blande (2014) Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush. New Phytologist 204: 380-385

    Dong-Hwan, C, SR Ramírez , ND Tsutsui (2012) A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons. Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:176-187

    Pringle EG, SR Ramírez, TC Bonbroke, DM Gordon, R Dirzo (2012) Cryptic diversity and population structure in widespread Azteca plant-ants from the northern Neotropics. Molecular Ecology21:3576-3592

    Ramírez SR , T Eltz, MK Fujiwara, B Goldman-Huertas, G Gerlach, ND Tsutsui, NE Pierce (2011) Asynchronous diversification in a specialized plant-pollinator mutualism. Science 333:1742-1746 PDF

    Ramírez SR , T Eltz, F Fritzsch, R Pemberton, EG Pringle, ND Tsutsui (2010) Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36: 873-884 PDF

    Ramírez SR , DW Roubik, C Skov, NE Pierce (2010) Phylogeny, diversification patterns and historical biogeography of euglossine orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100(3): 552-572 PDF

    Ramírez SR , C Nieh, TB Quental, DW Roubik, VL Imperatriz-Fonseca, NE Pierce (2010) A molecular phylogeny of the stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera: Meliponini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(2): 519-525

    Ramírez SR (2009) Orchid bees. Current Biology 19(2):1061-1063. [PDF]

    Zimmermann, Y, SR Ramírez , T Eltz (2009) Chemical niche differentiation among sympatric orchid bees. Ecology 90(11): 2994-3008. PDF

    Ramírez, SR, B Gravendeel, RB Singer, CR Marshall, NE Pierce (2007) Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448:1042-1045 PDF