Walter S. Leal


Position Title
Distinguished Professor

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological Sciences

1117 Surge III

Research Interests

Biochemical and molecular basis of insect olfaction

Our laboratory is interested in understanding how insects perceive the world through the sense of smell. Insect prominence among other animals is due in large part to a sophisticated olfactory system, which can selectively detect minute amounts of odorants. We aimed at unraveling the molecular mechanisms underpinning selectivity and sensitivity. Our goal is not only to advance our understanding of fundamental biology, but also to exploit the molecular basis of insect chemical communication for the development of environmentally friendly strategies for monitoring, controlling, and surveillance of insect vectors. One of the main objectives is to “identify approaches that will help control or prevent the transmission of vector-borne pathogens to humans.” This goal is in line with the mission of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) – the major sponsor of our research program. We focus mainly on the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, which vectors pathogens causing filariasis, West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever. We use a multi-disciplinary approach that includes bioinformatics, molecular methods, RNAi & CRISPR/Cas9 silencing, sensory physiology techniques and behavioral measurements. Ultimately, we test in the field newly developed oviposition attractants, repellents, and insect trapping systems.

Grad Group Affiliations

  • AgCHEM: Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology


  • BIS 102 Struc-Func Biomolecules


  • Leal Lab
    • Pingxi Xu, Thiago Franco, Xiaolan Wen, WeiYu (James) Lu, Kaiming Tan, Justin Hwang, Xiang Meng

Honors and Awards

  • 2019: Elected Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors
  • 2018: Founders' Memorial Lecture of the Entomological Society of America (delivered in 2019) 
  • 2016: Distinguished Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
  • 2015: Elected a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences
  • 2015: Elected Honorary Fellow of Royal Entomological Society (Hon. F.R.E.S.)
  •  2013: Inducted into the Brazilian Academy of Sciences; elected in 2012 
  • 2012: Silver Medal, International Society of Chemical Ecology 
  • 2011: Fellow, Royal Entomological Society
  • 2011: Nan Yao Su Award for Innovation and Creativity in Entomology, ESA 
  • 2011: National Chemical Ecology Prize Prof. Jose Tercio Barbosa Ferreira, Brazil 
  • 2011: Guest Speaker, Advanced School of Natural Products, São Paulo, Brazil 
  • 2011: Sawicki Lecture Honored Speaker, Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom
  • 2010: Guest Speaker, American Philosophical Society (Autumn Meeting) 
  • 2010: C. W. Woodworth Award, Pacific Branch-ESA
  • 2009: Fellow, Entomological Society of America;
  • 2008: Recognition Award in Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, ESA
  • 2008: Medal of Science “Mérito em Ciência,” Brazilian Society of Entomology
  • 2007: Silverstein-Simeone Award, International Society of Chemical Ecology 
  • 2007: Robert L. Patton Lecture, Cornell University, Department of Entomology
  • 2006: Scudder Lecture Award, University of British Columbia, Canada
  • 2006: Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society of Agriculture
  • 2005: Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 
  • 2003: Gary Simmons Distinguished Memorial Lecture, Michigan State University, Entomology
  • 2002: Recognition Award in Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, PB-ESA 
  • 1998: Award of the Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 
  • 1995: Medal of Achievement, Entomological Society of Brazil 
  • 1994: Technology Prize (Gijitsusho), Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotech. and Agrochemistry

Professional Societies

  • Entomological Society of America; International Society for Chemical Ecology; Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry; Japan Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
  • American Chemical Society
  • Royal Entomological Society


  • 1982 BS Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, Brazil
  • 1987 MS Agricultural Chemistry, Mie University, Tsu-Mie, Japan
  • 1990 PhD Applied Biochemistry, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba-Ibaraki, Japan


Xu P, Wen X, Leal WS. CO2 per se activates carbon dioxide receptors. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2019, 103284. NIHMSID: NIHMS1544420.doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.103284 

Tan K, Faierstein GB, Xu P, Barbosa RMR, Buss GK, Leal WS. A popular Indian clove-based mosquito repellent is less effective against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti than DEET. PLoS One. 2019;14(11):e0224810. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224810. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31689339; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6830767.

Zeng F, Xu P, Leal WS. Odorant receptors from Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti sensitive to floral compounds. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Oct;113:103213. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.103213. Epub 2019 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 31442487; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6733653.

Xu P, Zeng F, Bedoukian RH, Leal WS. DEET and other repellents are inhibitors of mosquito odorant receptors for oviposition attractants. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Oct;113:103224. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.103224. Epub 2019 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 31446031; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6752049.

Xu P, Choo YM, Chen Z, Zeng F, Tan K, Chen TY, Cornel AJ, Liu N, Leal WS. Odorant Inhibition in Mosquito Olfaction. iScience. 2019 Sep 27;19:25-38. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2019.07.008. Epub 2019 Jul 12. PubMed PMID: 31349189; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6660600.

Faierstein GB, Lu W, Sena AKLS, Barbosa RMR, Leal WS. Conspecific and allospecific larval extracts entice mosquitoes to lay eggs and may be used in attract-and-kill control strategy. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 24;9(1):13747. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50274-1. PubMed PMID: 31551447.

Zanardi OZ, Volpe HXL, Luvizotto RAG, Magnani RF, Gonzalez F, Calvo C, Oehlschlager CA, Lehan BJ, Esperança V, Delfino JY, de Freitas R, de Carvalho RI, Mulinari TA, Miranda MP, Bento JMS, Leal WS. Laboratory and field evaluation of acetic acid-based lures for male Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 9;9(1):12920. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49469-3. PubMed PMID: 31501479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6733878.

Ayres CFJ, Guedes DRD, Paiva MHS, Morais-Sobral MC, Krokovsky L, Machado LC, Melo-Santos MAV, Crespo M, Oliveira CMF, Ribeiro RS, Cardoso OA, Menezes ALB, Laperrière-Jr RC, Luna CF, Oliveira ALS, Leal WS, Wallau GL. Zika virus detection, isolation and genome sequencing through Culicidae sampling during the epidemic in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 8;12(1):220. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3461-4. PubMed PMID: 31068218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6505216.

Kepchia D, Xu P, Terryn R, Castro A, Schürer SC, Leal WS, Luetje CW. Use of machine learning to identify novel, behaviorally active antagonists of the insect odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11;9(1):4055. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40640-4. PubMed PMID: 30858563; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6411751.

Paiva MHS, Barbosa RMR, Santos SA, Silva NM, Paula MB, Ayres CFJ, Leal WS. An unsettling explanation for the failure of skatole-baited ovitraps to capture Culex mosquitoes. Insect Sci. 2019 Oct;26(5):873-880. doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12578. Epub 2018 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 29442435; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6488435.

Franco TA, Xu P, Brito NF, Oliveira DS, Wen X, Moreira MF, Unelius CR, Leal WS, Melo ACA. Reverse chemical ecology-based approach leading to the accidental discovery of repellents for Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas diseases refractory to DEET. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Dec;103:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2018.10.004. Epub 2018 Oct 26. PubMed PMID: 30401626; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6278923.

*Meinwald J, Leal WS, Kubanek J. Molecules as Biotic Messengers. ACS Omega. 2018 Apr 30;3(4):4048-4053. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00268. Epub 2018 Apr 10.  PubMed PMID: 30023885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6044985.

*Peer-reviewed, review article

Oliveira DS, Brito NF, Franco TA, Moreira MF, Leal WS, Melo ACA. Functional Characterization of Odorant Binding Protein 27 (RproOBP27) From Rhodnius prolixus Antennae. Front Physiol. 2018;9:1175. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01175. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30210359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6119777.

Choo YM, Xu P, Hwang JK, Zeng F, Tan K, Bhagavathy G, Chauhan KR, Leal WS. Reverse chemical ecology approach for the identification of an oviposition attractant for Culex quinquefasciatusProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jan 23;115(4):714-719. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1718284115. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 29311316; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5789951.

Zanardi OZ, Volpe HXL, Favaris AP, Silva WD, Luvizotto RAG, Magnani RF, Esperança V, Delfino JY, de Freitas R, Miranda MP, Parra JRP, Bento JMS, Leal WS. Putative sex pheromone of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, breaks down into an attractant. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 11;8(1):455. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18986-4. PubMed PMID: 29323263; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5764970.

Cardoso-Júnior CAM, Silva RP, Borges NA, de Carvalho WJ, Leal WS, Simões ZLP, Bitondi MMG, Ueira Vieira C, Bonetti AM, Hartfelder K. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellarisJ Insect Physiol. 2017 Aug;101:185-194. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2017.08.001. Epub 2017 Aug 9. PubMed PMID: 28800885.

*Leal WS. Reverse chemical ecology at the service of conservation biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 14;114(46):12094-12096. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1717375114. Epub 2017 Nov 1. PubMed PMID: 29093161; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5699103.

*Invited Commentary, reviewed by PNAS Editorial Board

Leal HM, Hwang JK, Tan K, Leal WS. Attraction of Culex mosquitoes to aldehydes from human emanations. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 21;7(1):17965. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18406-7. PubMed PMID: 29269748; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5740115.

Oliveira DS, Brito NF, Nogueira FCS, Moreira MF, Leal WS, Soares MR, Melo ACA. Proteomic analysis of the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus antenna. J Insect Physiol. 2017 Jul;100:108-118. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2017.06.004. Epub 2017 Jun 9. PubMed PMID: 28606853.

Hughes DT, Pelletier J, Rahman S, Chen S, Leal WS, Luetje CW. Functional and Nonfunctional Forms of CquiOR91, an Odorant Selectivity Subunit of Culex quinquefasciatus. Chem Senses. 2017 May 1;42(4):333-341. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjx011. PubMed PMID: 28334229; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5964367.

Carvalho WJ, Fujimura PT, Bonetti AM, Goulart LR, Cloonan K, da Silva NM, Araújo ECB, Ueira-Vieira C, Leal WS. Characterization of antennal sensilla, larvae morphology and olfactory genes of Melipona scutellaris stingless bee. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0174857. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174857. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28423045; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5396885.

Lu W, Hwang JK, Zeng F, Leal WS. DEET as a feeding deterrent. PLoS One. 2017;12(12):e0189243. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189243. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 29240785; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5730186.

Paiva MHS, Guedes DRD, Leal WS, Ayres CFJ. Sensitivity of RT-PCR method in samples shown to be positive for Zika virus by RT-qPCR in vector competence studies. Genet Mol Biol. 2017 Jul-Sep;40(3):597-599. doi: 10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2016-0312. Epub 2017 May 22. PubMed PMID: 28534930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5596374.

Leal WS, Barbosa RM, Zeng F, Faierstein GB, Tan K, Paiva MH, Guedes DR, Crespo MM, Ayres CF. Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. doi: 10.1038/srep42826. PubMed PMID: 28205633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5311973.

Bento JM, Parra JR, de Miranda SH, Adami AC, Vilela EF, Leal WS. How much is a pheromone worth?. F1000Res. 2016;5:1763. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.9195.1. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27583133; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4972084

Franco TA, Oliveira DS, Moreira MF, Leal WS, Melo AC. Silencing the odorant receptor co-receptor RproOrco affects the physiology and behavior of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Feb;69:82-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 25747010.

Leal WSZika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out. F1000Res. 2016;5:2546. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.9839.1. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27853521; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5105876.

Guedes DR, Paiva MH, Donato MM, Barbosa PP, Krokovsky L, Rocha SWDS, Saraiva K, Crespo MM, Rezende TM, Wallau GL, Barbosa RM, Oliveira CM, Melo-Santos MA, Pena L, Cordeiro MT, Franca RFO, Oliveira AL, Peixoto CA, Leal WS, Ayres CF. Zika virus replication in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in Brazil. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2017 Aug 9;6(8):e69. doi: 10.1038/emi.2017.59. PubMed PMID: 28790458; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5583667.

Nikbakhtzadeh MR, Buss GK, Leal WS. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes. Front Physiol. 2016;7:4. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00004. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 26858651; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4726748.

Garczynski SF, Leal WS. Alternative splicing produces two transcripts encoding female-biased pheromone subfamily receptors in the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitellaFront. Ecol. Evol.. 2015 October;

Pelletier J, Xu P, Yoon KS, Clark JM, Leal WS. Odorant receptor-based discovery of natural repellents of human lice. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Nov;66:103-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.10.009. Epub 2015 Oct 19. PubMed PMID: 26494014; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4663167.

*Leal WS. Snapshot of insect-fungus arms race. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 14;112(28):8519-20. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1510615112. Epub 2015 Jun 29. PubMed PMID: 26124139; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4507252.

*Invited Commentary, reviewed by PNAS Editorial Board

Xu P, Zhu F, Buss GK, Leal WS. 1-Octen-3-ol - the attractant that repels. F1000Res. 2015;4:156. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.6646.1. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26543554; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4623779.

Yin J, Choo YM, Duan H, Leal WS. Selectivity of odorant-binding proteins from the southern house mosquito tested against physiologically relevant ligands. Front Physiol. 2015;6:56. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00056. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25774136; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4343023.

Leal GM, Leal WS. Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegyptiF1000Res. 2014;3:305. doi:10.12688/f1000research.5879.2. eCollection 2014. PubMedPMID: 25671088

Xu P, Choo YM, De La Rosa A, Leal WS. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 18;111(46):16592-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417244111. Epub 2014 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 25349401; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4246313.

Ueira-Vieira C, Kimbrell DA, de Carvalho WJ, Leal WS. Facile functional analysis of insect odorant receptors expressed in the fruit fly: validation with receptors from taxonomically distant and closely related species. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014 Dec;71(23):4675-80. doi: 10.1007/s00018-014-1639-7. Epub 2014 May 13. PubMed PMID: 24816944; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4231014.

Vásquez GM, Syed Z, Estes PA, Leal WS, Gould F. Specificity of the receptor for the major sex pheromone component in Heliothis virescensJ Insect Sci. 2013;13:160. doi: 10.1673/031.013.16001. PubMed PMID: 24773407; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4015405.

Leal WS, Choo YM, Xu P, da Silva CS, Ueira-Vieira C. Differential expression of olfactory genes in the southern house mosquito and insights into unique odorant receptor gene isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12;110(46):18704-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316059110. Epub 2013 Oct 28. PubMed PMID: 24167245; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3831946.

Damberger FF, Michel E, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. Pheromone discrimination by a pH-tuned polymorphism of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12;110(46):18680-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317706110. Epub 2013 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 24158483; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3832013.

Cloonan K, Bedoukian RH, Leal WS. Quasi-double-blind screening of semiochemicals for reducing navel orangeworm oviposition on almonds. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080182. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24244643; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3828197.

Zhu F, Xu P, Barbosa RM, Choo YM, Leal WS. RNAi-based demonstration of direct link between specific odorant receptors and mosquito oviposition behavior. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Oct;43(10):916-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2013.07.008. Epub 2013 Aug 2. PubMed PMID: 23911547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3800558.

Xu P, Choo YM, Pelletier J, Sujimoto FR, Hughes DT, Zhu F, Atungulu E, Cornel AJ, Luetje CW, Leal WS. Silent, generic and plant kairomone sensitive odorant receptors from the Southern house mosquito. J Insect Physiol. 2013 Sep;59(9):961-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Jul 19. PubMed PMID: 23876610; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3800014.

Xu P, Leal WS. Probing insect odorant receptors with their cognate ligands: insights into structural features. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Jun 7;435(3):477-82. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.015. Epub 2013 May 11. PubMed PMID: 23673297; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3836372.

*Leal WS. Healing power of honey. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 28;110(22):8763-4. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1306617110. Epub 2013 May 3. PubMed PMID: 23645636; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3670395.

*Invited Commentary, reviewed by PNAS Editorial Board

Choo YM, Pelletier J, Atungulu E, Leal WS. Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67794. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067794. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23826341; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3691121. 

di Luccio E, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Wilson DK. Crystallographic observation of pH-induced conformational changes in the Amyelois transitella pheromone-binding protein AtraPBP1. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e53840. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053840. Epub 2013 Feb 13. PubMed PMID: 23418423; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3572114.

Figueira-Mansur J, Ferreira-Pereira A, Mansur JF, Franco TA, Alvarenga ES, Sorgine MH, Neves BC, Melo AC, Leal WS, Masuda H, Moreira MF. Silencing of P-glycoprotein increases mortality in temephos-treated Aedes aegypti larvae. Insect Mol Biol. 2013 Dec;22(6):648-58. doi: 10.1111/imb.12052. Epub 2013 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 23980723.

Ishida Y, Ishibashi J, Leal WS. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e51779. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051779. Epub 2013 Jan 11. PubMed PMID: 23326317; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3543412.

*Leal WS. An acute olfactory system is essential for reproduction – the raison d’eter for adult insects. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 2012; 136:295-302.

*Invited article; guest speaker

Xu P, Hooper AM, Pickett JA, Leal WS. Specificity determinants of the silkworm moth sex pheromone. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44190. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044190. Epub 2012 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 22957053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3434217.

Xu P, Garczynski SF, Atungulu E, Syed Z, Choo YM, Vidal DM, Zitelli CH, Leal WS. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41653. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041653. Epub 2012 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 22911835; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3401280.

Eliyahu D, Nojima S, Santangelo RG, Carpenter S, Webster FX, Kiemle DJ, Gemeno C, Leal WS, Schal C. Unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 21;109(8):E490-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1111748109. Epub 2011 Dec 19. PubMed PMID: 22184232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3286908.

Vandermoten S, Francis F, Haubruge E, Leal WS. Conserved odorant-binding proteins from aphids and eavesdropping predators. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8): e23608. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023608. Epub 2011 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 21912599; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3160308.

Syed Z, Leal WS. Electrophysiological measurements from a moth olfactory system. J Vis Exp. 2011 Mar 29;(49). doi: 10.3791/2489. PubMed PMID: 21490575; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3197296.

Pelletier J, Leal WS. Characterization of olfactory genes in the antennae of the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusJ Insect Physiol. 2011 Jul;57(7):915-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.04.003. Epub 2011 Apr 9. PubMed PMID: 21504749.

Michel E, Damberger FF, Ishida Y, Fiorito F, Lee D, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. Dynamic conformational equilibria in the physiological function of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein. J Mol Biol. 2011 May 20;408(5):922-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.03.008. Epub 2011 Mar 17. PubMed PMID: 21396939.

Syed Z, Pelletier J, Flounders E, Chitolina RF, Leal WS. Generic insect repellent detector from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogasterPLoS One. 2011 Mar 16;6(3): e17705. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017705. PubMed PMID: 21436880; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3059203.

Xu W, Xu X, Leal WS, Ames JB. Extrusion of the C-terminal helix in navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1) controls pheromone binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jan 7;404(1):335-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.11.119. Epub 2010 Dec 3. PubMed PMID: 21130734; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3019287.

Liu Z, Vidal DM, Syed Z, Ishida Y, Leal WS. Pheromone binding to general odorant-binding proteins from the navel orangeworm. J Chem Ecol. 2010 Jul;36(7):787-94. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9811-5. Epub 2010 Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 20535533; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2895864.

Mao Y, Xu X, Xu W, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Ames JB, Clardy J. Crystal and solution structures of an odorant-binding protein from the southern house mosquito complexed with an oviposition pheromone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 2;107(44):19102-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1012274107. Epub 2010 Oct 18. PubMed PMID: 20956299; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2973904.

Hughes DT, Pelletier J, Luetje CW, Leal WS. Odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito narrowly tuned to the oviposition attractant skatole. J Chem Ecol. 2010 Aug;36(8):797-800. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9828-9. Epub 2010 Jul 11. PubMed PMID: 20623327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2908433.

Xu W, Cornel AJ, Leal WS. Odorant-binding proteins of the malaria mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 22;5(10):e15403. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015403. PubMed PMID: 21042539; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2962654.

Syed Z, Kopp A, Kimbrell DA, Leal WS. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 18;107(20):9436-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1003881107. Epub 2010 May 3. PubMed PMID: 20439725; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2889086

Barbosa RM, Furtado A, Regis L, Leal WS. Evaluation of an oviposition-stimulating kairomone for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in Recife, Brazil. J Vector Ecol. 2010 Jun;35(1):204-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2010.00048.x. PubMed PMID: 20618668.

Barbosa RM, Regis L, Vasconcelos R, Leal WS. Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) egg laying in traps loaded with Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis and baited with skatole. J Med Entomol. 2010 May;47(3):345-8. doi: 10.1603/me09241. PubMed PMID: 20496581; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2882852.

Pelletier J, Hughes DT, Luetje CW, Leal WS. An odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus sensitive to oviposition attractants. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 8;5(4): e10090. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010090. PubMed PMID: 20386699; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2851645.

*Leal WS. Behavioural neurobiology: The treacherous scent of a human. Nature. 2010 Mar 4;464(7285):37-8. doi: 10.1038/464037a. PubMed PMID: 20203594.

 *Invited article for News & Views article, not peer-reviewed

Pelletier J, Guidolin A, Syed Z, Cornel AJ, Leal WS. Knockdown of a mosquito odorant-binding protein involved in the sensitive detection of oviposition attractants. J Chem Ecol. 2010 Mar;36(3):245-8. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9762-x. Epub 2010 Feb 27. PubMed PMID: 20191395; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2837830.

Xu X, Xu W, Rayo J, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Ames JB. NMR structure of navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1): implications for pH-sensitive pheromone detection. Biochemistry. 2010 Feb 23;49(7):1469-76. doi: 10.1021/bi9020132. PubMed PMID: 20088570; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2822879.

*Pickett JA, Birkett MA, Dewhirst SY, Logan JG, Omolo MO, Torto B, Pelletier J, Syed Z, Leal WS. Chemical ecology of animal and human pathogen vectors in a changing global climate. J Chem Ecol. 2010 Jan;36(1):113-21. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9739-9. Epub 2010 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 20119869.

 *Invited article

Leite NR, Krogh R, Xu W, Ishida Y, Iulek J, Leal WS, Oliva G. Structure of an odorant-binding protein from the mosquito Aedes aegypti suggests a binding pocket covered by a pH-sensitive "Lid". PLoS One. 2009 Nov 26;4(11): e8006. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008006. PubMed PMID: 19956631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2778553.

Syed Z, Leal WS. Acute olfactory response of Culex mosquitoes to a human- and bird-derived attractant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 3;106(44):18803-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0906932106. Epub 2009 Oct 26. PubMed PMID: 19858490; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2767364.

Leal WS, Ishida Y, Pelletier J, Xu W, Rayo J, Xu X, Ames JB. Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitellaPLoS One. 2009 Sep 30;4(9): e7235. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007235. PubMed PMID: 19789654; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2749207.

Xu X, Xu W, Ishida Y, Li Y, Leal WS, Ames JB. (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C chemical shift assignments of the mosquito odorant binding protein-1 (CquiOBP1) bound to the mosquito oviposition pheromone. Biomol NMR Assign. 2009 Dec;3(2):195-7. doi: 10.1007/s12104-009-9173-5. Epub 2009 Jun 26. PubMed PMID: 19888689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2772962.

Pelletier J, Leal WS. Genome analysis and expression patterns of odorant-binding proteins from the Southern House mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 16;4(7): e6237. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006237. PubMed PMID: 19606229; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2707629.

Parra-Pedrazzoli A, Leal WS, Vilela EF, Mendonca MC, Bento JS. Synthetic sex pheromone of the citrus leaf miner in Brazilian citrus groves. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 2009; 44:676-680.

Leal WS, Ishida Y. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invictaPLoS One. 2008;3(11): e3762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003762. Epub 2008 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 19018280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2582448.

Syed Z, Leal WS. Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellent DEET. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 9;105(36):13598-603. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805312105. Epub 2008 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 18711137; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2518096.

Hummel NA, Leal WS, Zalom FG. Potentially hygroreceptive sensilla on the anal stylus of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennisJ Insect Sci. 2008;8:1-6. doi: 10.1673/031.008.5801. PubMed PMID: 20302543; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3127388.

Leal WS, Barbosa RM, Xu W, Ishida Y, Syed Z, Latte N, Chen AM, Morgan TI, Cornel AJ, Furtado A. Reverse and conventional chemical ecology approaches for the development of oviposition attractants for Culex mosquitoesPLoS One. 2008 Aug 22;3(8): e3045. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003045. PubMed PMID: 18725946; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2516325.

Ishida Y, Leal WS. Chiral discrimination of the Japanese beetle sex pheromone and a behavioral antagonist by a pheromone-degrading enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 1;105(26):9076-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0802610105. Epub 2008 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 18579770; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2440356.

Xu W, Leal WS. Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Aug 8;372(4):559-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.087. Epub 2008 May 27. PubMed PMID: 18503757.

Lapointe SL, Leal WS. Describing seasonal phenology of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) with pheromone lures: Controlling for lure degradation. Florida Entomol.. 2007; 90:710-714.

Syed Z, Leal WS. Maxillary palps are broad spectrum odorant detectors in Culex quinquefasciatusChem Senses. 2007 Oct;32(8):727-38. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjm040. Epub 2007 Jun 14. PubMed PMID: 17569743.

Damberger FF, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. Structural basis of ligand binding and release in insect pheromone-binding proteins: NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 at pH 4.5. J Mol Biol. 2007 Nov 2;373(4):811-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.07.078. Epub 2007 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 17884092.

Lautenschlager C, Leal WS, Clardy J. Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein binding nonpheromone ligands: implications for pheromone recognition. Structure. 2007 Sep;15(9):1148-54. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2007.07.013. PubMed PMID: 17850754; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2072049.

Braks MA, Leal WS, Cardé RT. Oviposition responses of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus to egg rafts and low doses of oviposition pheromone under semifield conditions. J Chem Ecol. 2007 Mar;33(3):567-78. doi: 10.1007/s10886-006-9223-8. PubMed PMID: 17252215.

Zarbin PH, Leal WS, Avila CJ, Oliveira LJ. Identification of the sex pheromone of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Tetrahedron letters. 2007; 48:1991-1992.

Parra-Pedrazzoli AL, Leal WS. Sexual behavior of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Neotrop Entomol. 2006 Nov-Dec;35(6):769-74. PubMed PMID: 17273707.

Syed Z, Ishida Y, Taylor K, Kimbrell DA, Leal WS. Pheromone reception in fruit flies expressing a moth's odorant receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31;103(44):16538-43. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0607874103. Epub 2006 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 17060610; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1621046.

Margaryan A, Moaddel R, Aldrich JR, Tsuruda JM, Chen AM, Leal WS, Wainer IW. Synthesis of an immobilized Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein liquid chromatography stationary phase. Talanta. 2006 Nov 15;70(4):752-5. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.01.046. Epub 2006 Mar 3. PubMed PMID: 18970835.

Damberger FF, Michel E, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. Pheromone discrimination by a pH-tuned polymorphism of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12;110(46):18680-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317706110. Epub 2013 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 24158483; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3832013.

Lapointe SL, Hall DG, Murata Y, Parra-Pedrazzoli A, Bento JS, Vilela EF, Leal WS. Field evaluation of a synthetic female sex pheromone for the leafmining moth Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Florida citrus. Florida Entomol. 2006; 89:274-276.

Wogulis M, Morgan T, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Wilson DK. The crystal structure of an odorant binding protein from Anopheles gambiae: evidence for a common ligand release mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jan 6;339(1):157-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.10.191. Epub 2005 Nov 9. PubMed PMID: 16300742.

Leal WS, Parra-Pedrazzoli AL, Cossé AA, Murata Y, Bento JM, Vilela EF. Identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone from the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrellaJ Chem Ecol. 2006 Jan;32(1):155-68. doi: 10.1007/s10886-006-9358-7. Epub 2006 Feb 26. PubMed PMID: 16525876.

Parra-Pedrazzoli AL, Cossé A, Murata Y, Bento JM, Vilela EF, Leal WS. Towards the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Neotrop Entomol. 2006 Jan-Feb;35(1):12-8. PubMed PMID: 17352064.

Ishida Y, Leal WS. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 27;102(39):14075-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0505340102. Epub 2005 Sep 19. PubMed PMID: 16172410; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1216831.

Leal WS, Chen AM, Erickson ML. Selective and pH-dependent binding of a moth pheromone to a pheromone-binding protein. J Chem Ecol. 2005 Oct;31(10):2493-9. doi: 10.1007/s10886-005-7458-4. Epub 2005 Sep 28. PubMed PMID: 16132337.

Lautenschlager C, Leal WS, Clardy J. Coil-to-helix transition and ligand release of Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Oct 7;335(4):1044-50. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.07.176. PubMed PMID: 16111659.

Leal WS, Chen AM, Ishida Y, Chiang VP, Erickson ML, Morgan TI, Tsuruda JM. Kinetics and molecular properties of pheromone binding and release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 12;102(15):5386-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0501447102. Epub 2005 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 15784736; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC555038.

Leal WS, Parra-Pedrazzoli AL, Kaissling KE, Morgan TI, Zalom FG, Pesak DJ, Dundulis EA, Burks CS, Higbee BS. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist. Naturwissenschaften. 2005 Mar;92(3):139-46. doi:10.1007/s00114-004-0598-5. Epub 2005 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 15668783.

Michel E, Damberger FF, Chen AM, Ishida Y, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. Assignments for the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein fragment BmPBP(1-128) at pH 6.5. J Biomol NMR. 2005 Jan;31(1):65. doi: 10.1007/s10858-004-5981-1. PubMed PMID: 15692741.

Leal WS, Pheromone reception. Top. Curr. Chem. 2005, vol. 240, pp. 1-36.

* Invited article

*Kaissling K-E and Leal WS, Biologische Nanokapseln für Duftstoffe. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 2004, vol 57, pp. 66-71.

* Invited article

Ishida Y, Chen AM, Tsuruda JM, Cornel AJ, Debboun M, Leal WS. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

Naturwissenschaften. 2004 Sep;91(9):426-31. doi: 10.1007/s00114-004-0551-7. Epub 2004 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 15338030.

*Leal WS. Pheromone unwrapping by pH flip-flopping. Chem Biol. 2004 Aug;11(8):1029-31. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2004.08.001. PubMed PMID: 15324801.

* Invited article

Maïbèche-Coisne M, Nikonov AA, Ishida Y, Jacquin-Joly E, Leal WS. Pheromone anosmia in a scarab beetle induced by in vivo inhibition of a pheromone-degrading enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 3;101(31):11459-64. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0403537101. Epub 2004 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 15277687; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC509178.

Eliyahu D, Mori K, Takikawa H, Leal WS, Schal C. Behavioral activity of stereoisomers and a new component of the contact sex pheromone of female German cockroach, Blattella germanicaJ Chem Ecol. 2004 Sep;30(9):1839-48. PubMed PMID: 15586678.

Gemeno C, Leal WS, Mori K, Schal C. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, to stereoisomers of its sex pheromone, supellapyrone. J Chem Ecol. 2003 Aug;29(8):1797-811. PubMed PMID: 12956508.

Ishida Y, Cornel AJ, Leal WS. Odorant-binding protein from Culex tarsalis, the most competent vector of West Nile virus in California. J. Asia Pacific Entomol.. 2003; 6:1-4.

Tóth M, Subchev M, Sredkov I, Szarukán I, Leal WS. A sex attractant for the scarab beetle Anomala solida Er. J Chem Ecol. 2003 Jul;29(7):1643-9. PubMed PMID: 12921442.

Oehlschlager AC, Leal WS, Gonzalez L, Chacon M, Andrade R. Trapping of Phyllophaga elenans with a female-produced pheromone. J Chem Ecol. 2003 Jan;29(1):27-36. PubMed PMID: 12647851.

Leal WS, Oehlschlager AC, Zarbin PH, Hidalgo E, Shannon PJ, Murata Y, Gonzalez L, Andrade R, Ono M. Sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga elenans and some intriguing minor components. J Chem Ecol. 2003 Jan;29(1):15-25. PubMed PMID: 12647850.

Lee D, Damberger FF, Peng G, Horst R, Güntert P, Nikonova L, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. NMR structure of the unliganded Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein at physiological pH. FEBS Lett. 2002 Nov 6;531(2):314-8. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03548-2. PubMed PMID: 12417333.

Ishida Y, Leal WS. Cloning of putative odorant-degrading enzyme and integumental esterase cDNAs from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Dec;32(12):1775-80. PubMed PMID: 12429129.

Ishida Y, Chiang V, Leal WS. Protein that makes sense in the Argentine ant. Naturwissenschaften. 2002 Nov;89(11):505-7. doi: 10.1007/s00114-002-0368-1. Epub 2002 Oct 2. PubMed PMID: 12451452.

Ishida Y, Chiang VP, Haverty MI, Leal WS. Odorant-binding proteins from a primitive termite. J Chem Ecol. 2002 Sep;28(9):1887-93. PubMed PMID: 12449514.

Alizadeh BH, Kuwahara S, Leal WS, Men HC. Synthesis of the racemate of (Z)-exo-alpha-bergamotenal, a pheromone component of the white-spotted spined bug, Eysarcoris parvus Uhler. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Jun;66(6):1415-8. doi: 10.1271/bbb.66.1415. PubMed PMID: 12162572.

Ishida Y, Cornel AJ, Leal WS. Identification and cloning of a female antenna-specific odorant-binding protein in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatusJ Chem Ecol. 2002 Apr;28(4):867-71. PubMed PMID: 12035932.

Nikonov AA, Peng G, Tsurupa G, Leal WS. Unisex pheromone detectors and pheromone-binding proteins in scarab beetles. Chem Senses. 2002 Jul;27(6):495-504. doi: 10.1093/chemse/27.6.495. PubMed PMID: 12142325.

Nikonov AA, Leal WS. Peripheral coding of sex pheromone and a behavioral antagonist in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonicaJ Chem Ecol. 2002 May;28(5):1075-89. PubMed PMID: 12049228.

Kim J, Hasegawa M, Leal WS. Individual variation in pheromone emission and termination patterns in female Anomala cupreaChemoecology. 2002; 12:121-128.

Deyu Z, Leal WS. Conformational isomers of insect odorant-binding proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Jan 1;397(1):99-105. doi: 10.1006/abbi.2001.2660. PubMed PMID: 11747315.

Peng G, Leal WS. Identification and cloning of a pheromone-binding protein from the Oriental beetle, Exomala orientalisJ Chem Ecol. 2001 Nov;27(11):2183-92. PubMed PMID: 11817074.

Horst R, Damberger F, Luginbühl P, Güntert P, Peng G, Nikonova L, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. NMR structure reveals intramolecular regulation mechanism for pheromone binding and release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 4;98(25):14374-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.251532998. Epub 2001 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 11724947; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC64689.

Nikonov AA, Valiyaveettil JT, Leal WS. A photoaffinity-labeled green leaf volatile compound 'tricks' highly selective and sensitive insect olfactory receptor neurons. Chem Senses. 2001 Jan;26(1):49-54. doi: 10.1093/chemse/26.1.49. PubMed PMID: 11124215.

Leal WS, Parra-Pedrazzoli AL, Cossé AA, Murata Y, Bento JM, Vilela EF. Identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone from the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrellaJ Chem Ecol. 2006 Jan;32(1):155-68. doi: 10.1007/s10886-006-9358-7. Epub 2006 Feb 26. PubMed PMID: 16525876.

Larsson MC, Leal WS, Hansson BS. Olfactory receptor neurons detecting plant odours and male volatiles in Anomala cuprea beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Insect Physiol. 2001 Sep;47(9):1065-1076. doi: 10.1016/s0022-1910(01)00087-7. PubMed PMID: 11472769.

Horst R, Damberger F, Peng G, Nikonova L, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. NMR assignment of the A form of the pheromone-binding protein of Bombyx moriJ Biomol NMR. 2001 Jan;19(1):79-80. doi: 10.1023/a:1008394615895. PubMed PMID: 11246858.

Bento JM, Parra JR, Vilela EF, Walder JM, Leal WS. Sexual behavior and diel activity of citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantianaJ Chem Ecol. 2001 Oct;27(10):2053-65. PubMed PMID: 11710611.

Damberger F, Nikonova L, Horst R, Peng G, Leal WS, Wüthrich K. NMR characterization of a pH-dependent equilibrium between two folded solution conformations of the pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx moriProtein Sci. 2000 May;9(5):1038-41. doi: 10.1110/ps.9.5.1038. PubMed PMID: 10850815; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2144629.

Marchese S, Angeli S, Andolfo A, Scaloni A, Brandazza A, Mazza M, Picimbon J, Leal WS, Pelosi P. Soluble proteins from chemosensory organs of Eurycantha calcarata (Insects, Phasmatodea). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 Nov;30(11):1091-8. PubMed PMID: 10989296.

Kuwahara S, Liang T, Leal WS, Ishikawa J, Kodama O. Synthesis of all four possible stereoisomers of 5,9-dimethylpentadecane, the major sex pheromone component of the coffee leaf miner moth, Perileucoptera coffeellaBiosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Dec;64(12):2723-6. doi: 10.1271/bbb.64.2723. PubMed PMID: 11210147.

Kuwahara S, Ishikawa J, Leal WS, Hamade S, Kodama O. Synthesis of both enantiomers of a novel sesquiterpene isolated from the pheromone gland of a stink bug, Tynacantha marginata Dallas. Synthesis. 2000; :1930-1935.

Kuwahara S, Hamade S, Leal WS, Ishikawa J, Kodama O. Synthesis of a novel sesquiterpene isolated from the pheromone gland of a stink bug, Tynacantha marginata Dallas. Tetrahedron. 2000; 56:8111-8117.

Kim JY, Leal WS. Ultrastructure of pheromone-detecting sensillum placodeum of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newmann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).Arthropod Struct Dev. 2000 Apr;29(2):121-8. PubMed PMID: 18088920.

Leal WSDuality monomer-dimer of the pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx moriBiochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Feb 16;268(2):521-9. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2158. PubMed PMID: 10679237.

Kuwahara S, Nagashima I, Leal WS, Ishikawa J, Kodama O. Preparation of (-)-periplanone D and its physical and spectroscopic properties. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Mar;64(3):600-2. doi: 10.1271/bbb.64.600. PubMed PMID: 10803961.

Sandler BH, Nikonova L, Leal WS, Clardy J. Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein-bombykol complex. Chem Biol. 2000 Feb;7(2):143-51. PubMed PMID: 10662696.

Leal WS, Nikonova L, Peng G. Disulfide structure of the pheromone binding protein from the silkworm moth, Bombyx moriFEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 24;464(1-2):85-90. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)01683-x. PubMed PMID: 10611489.

Wojtasek H, Picimbon JF, Leal WS. Identification and cloning of odorant binding proteins from the scarab beetle Phyllopertha diversaBiochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Oct 5;263(3):832-7. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1999.1448. PubMed PMID: 10512766.

Wojtasek H, Leal WS. Conformational change in the pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx mori induced by pH and by interaction with membranes. J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 22;274(43):30950-6. doi: 10.1074/jbc.274.43.30950. PubMed PMID: 10521490.

Mizutani N, Wada T, Higuchi H, Ono M, Leal WS. Effect of synthetic aggregation pheromone of Riptortus clavatus on density and parasitism of egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in soybean fields. Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 1999; 43:195-202.

Picimbon J, Leal WS. Olfactory soluble proteins of cockroaches. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1999; 29:973-978.

Wojtasek H, Leal WS. Degradation of an alkaloid pheromone from the pale-brown chafer, Phyllopertha diversa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), by an insect olfactory cytochrome P450. FEBS Lett. 1999 Sep 24;458(3):333-6. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)01178-3. PubMed PMID: 10570935.

Larsson MC, Leal WS, Hansson BS. Olfactory receptor neurons specific to chiral sex pheromone components in male and female Anomala cuprea beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 1999; 184(4):353-359.

Leal WSEnantiomeric Anosmia in Scarab Beetles. J. Chem. Ecol. 1999; 25(5): 1055-1066.

Kim J, Leal WS. Eversible Pheromone Gland in a Melolonthine Beetle, Holotrichia parallelaJ. Chem. Ecol. 1999; 25(4):825–833.

Leal WS, Zarbini PG, Ferreira JT. Biosynthesis of scarab beetle pheromones: Enantioselective 8hydroxylation of fatty acids. European Journal of Biochemistry. 1999; 259:175-180.

Maekawa M, Imai T, Tsuchiya S, Fujimori T, Leal WS. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the soybean beetle, Anomala rufocuprea Motschulsky (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) to methyl anthranilate and its related compounds. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 1999; 34(1):99-103.

Hansson BS, Larsson MC, Leal WS. Green leaf volatiledetecting olfactory receptor neurones display very high sensitivity and specificity in a scarab beetle. Physiological entomology. 1999; 24(2):121-126.

Kuwahara S, Itoh D, Leal WS, Kodama O. A convenient stereoselective synthesis of a sex pheromone component of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Tetrahedron Letters. 1998; 39(10):1183-1184.

Kuwahara S, Tsuruta T, Leal WS, Kodama O. Synthesis of Both Enantiomers of 15-Hexadecanolide, a Sex Pheromone Component of the Stink Bug, Piezodorus hybneriBiosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62(6):1261-3. doi: 10.1271/bbb.62.1261. PubMed PMID: 27388652.

Kuwahara S, Itoh D, Leal WS, Kodama O. A convenient synthesis of (2S,3R,6S,7Z)- and (2R,3S,6S,7Z)-2,3-epoxy-7,10-bisaboladiene, the sex pheromones of the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula). Tetrahedron. 1998; 54(38):11421-11430.

Wojtasek H, Hansson BS, Leal WS. Attracted or repelled? -- a matter of two neurons, one pheromone binding protein, and a chiral center. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Sep 18;250(2):217-22. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9278. PubMed PMID: 9753610.

Wojtasek H, Hansson BS, Leal WS. Chemical communication in scarab beetles with one pheromone binding protein, two olfactory receptor neurons and two enantiomeric pheromones. Jpn. J. Taste Smell Res. 1998; 5:545-548.

Leal WS, Kuwahara S, Shi S, Higuchi H, Marino CB, Ono M, Meinwald J. Male-Released Sex Pheromone of the Stink Bug Piezodorus hybneriJ. Chem. Ecol. 1998; 24(11):1817–1829.

Leal WS, Uchida K. Application of GC-EAD to the Determination of Mosquito Repellents Derived from a Plant, Cymbopogon citratusJournal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 1998; 1(2):217-221.

Leal WS, Moura JL, Bento JS, Vilela EF, Pereira PB. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence for a Sex Pheromone in the Wasp Bephratelloides pomorumJ. Chem. Ecol. 1997; 23(5):1281–1289.

Imai T, Tsuchiya S, Maekawa M, Fujimori T, Leal WS. Methyl Anthranilate, a Novel Attractant for the Soybean Beetle, Anomala rufocuprea MOTSCHULSKY (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 1997; 32:45-48.

Leal WS, Zarbin PH, Wojtasek H, Kuwahara S, Hasegawa M, Ueda Y. Medicinal alkaloid as a sex pheromone. Nature. 1997 Jan 16;385(6613):213. doi: 10.1038/385213a0. PubMed PMID: 9000070.

Kuwahara S, Hamade S, Yoshinaga Y, Leal WS, Kodama O. Synthesis of (R, Z)-7, 15-Hexadecadien-4-olide, the Sex Pheromone of the Yellowish Elongate Chafer (Heptophylla picea). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1997 Jan;61(10):1696-8. doi: 10.1271/bbb.61.1696. PubMed PMID: 27393167.

Aldrich JR, Leal WS, Nishida R, Khrimian AP, Lee C, Sakuratani Y. Semiochemistry of aposematic seed bugs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 1997; 84:127–135.

Tada S, Leal WS. Localization and morphology of sex pheromone glands in scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Rutelinae, Melolonthinae). J. Chem. Ecol. 1997; 23:903-915.

Nakamuta K, Leal WS, Nakashima T, Tokoro M, Ono M, Nakanishi M. Increase of Trap Catches by a Combination of Male Sex Pheromones and Floral Attractant in Longhorn Beetle, Anaglyptus subfasciatus. J Chem Ecol.1997; 23:1635-1640.

Mizutani N, Wada T, Higuchi H, Ono M, Leal WS. A component of a synthetic aggregation pheromone of Riptortus clavatus (Thumberg) (Heteroptera: Alydidae), that attracts an egg parasitoid, Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 1997; 32:504-507.

Zhang A, Robbins PS, Leal WS, Linn CE, Villani MG, Roelofs WL. Essential Amino Acid Methyl Esters: Major Sex Pheromone Components of the Cranberry White Grub, Phyllophaga anxia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Chem Ecol. 1997; 23(1):231–245.

Shi X, Leal WS, Meinwald J. Assignment of absolute stereochemistry to an insect pheromone by chiral amplification. Bioorg Med Chem. 1996 Mar;4(3):297-303. doi: 10.1016/0968-0896(96)00006-5. PubMed PMID: 8733607.

Leal WS, Kuwahara S, Ono M, Kubota S. (R-Z)-7,15-hexadecadien-4-olide, sex pheromone of the yellowish elongate chafer, Heptophylla piceaBioorg Med Chem. 1996 Mar;4(3):315-21. doi: 10.1016/0968-0896(96)00008-9. PubMed PMID: 8733609.

Leal WSChemical communication in scarab beetles: reciprocal behavioral agonist-antagonist activities of chiral pheromones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 29;93(22):12112-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.22.12112. PubMed PMID: 8901541; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC37951.

Yarden G, Shani A, Leal WS. (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene--an electroantennogram-active component of Maladera matrida volatiles. Bioorg Med Chem. 1996 Mar;4(3):283-7. doi: 10.1016/0968-0896(96)00004-1. PubMed PMID: 8733605.

Cherry RH, Klein MG, Leal WS. Attraction of Adult Anomala marginata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Anethole. J. Agric. Entomol. 1996; 13(4):359-864.

Leal WS, Hasegawa M, Sawada M, Ono M, Tada S. Scarab beetle Anomala albopilosa albopilosa utilizes a more complex sex pheromone system than a similar species A. cupreaJ Chem Ecol. 1996; 22(11):2001–2010.

Leal WS, Yadava CP, Vijayvergia JN. Aggregation of the scarab beetle Holotrichia consanguinea in response to female-released pheromone suggests secondary function hypothesis for semiochemical. J Chem Ecol. 1996 Aug;22(8):1557-66. doi: 10.1007/BF02027731. PubMed PMID: 24226255.

Leal WS, Ueda Y, Ono M. Attractant pheromone for male rice bug, Leptocorisa chinensis: Semiochemicals produced by both male and female. J Chem Ecol. 1996 Aug;22(8):1429-37. doi: 10.1007/BF02027722. PubMed PMID: 24226246.

Leal WS, Higuchi H, Mizutani N, Nakamori H, Kadosawa T, Ono M. Multifunctional communication in Riptortus clavatus (Heteroptera: Alydidae): Conspecific nymphs and egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus nezarae use the same adult attractant pheromone as chemical cue. J Chem Ecol. 1995 Jul;21(7):973-85. doi: 10.1007/BF02033802. PubMed PMID: 24234413.

Shi X, Leal WS, Liu Z, Schrader E, Meinwald J. A new synthesis of alkylated 2H-pyran-2-ones and its application to the determination of the relative and absolute configuration of supellapyrone, sex pheromone of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa. Tetrahedron letters. 1995; 36(1):71-74.

Leal WS, Shi X, Nakamuta K, Ono M, Meinwald J. Structure, stereochemistry, and thermal isomerization of the male sex pheromone of the longhorn beetle Anaglyptus subfasciatus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Feb 14;92(4):1038-42. doi: 10.1073/pnas.92.4.1038. PubMed PMID: 7862629; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC42632.

Leal WSSex pheromone of plant-feeding scarab beetles. Korean J. Appl. Entomology. 1995; 34(1):9-14.

Leal WS, Shi X, Liang D, Schal C, Meinwald J. Application of chiral gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection to the determination of the stereochemistry of a cockroach sex pheromone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Feb 14;92(4):1033-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.92.4.1033. PubMed PMID: 7862628; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC42631.

Leal WS, Panizzi AR, Niva CC. Alarm pheromone system of leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus (Heteroptera: Coreidae). J Chem Ecol. 1994; 20(5):1209–1216.

Toth M, Leal WS, Szarukán I, Lesznyák M, Szöcs G. 2-(E)-nonen-1-ol: Male attractant for chafers Anomala vitis Fabr. and A. dubia Scop. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Chem Ecol. 1994; 20(10):2481–2487.

Leal WS, Hasegawa M, Sawada M, Ono M. Sex pheromone of oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis: Identification and field evaluation. J Chem Ecol. 1994 Jul;20(7):1705-18. doi: 10.1007/BF02059892. PubMed PMID: 24242663.

Leal WS, Kawamura F, Ono M. The scarab beetle Anomala albopilosa sakishimana utilizes the same sex pheromone blend as a closely related and geographically isolated species, Anomala cupreaJ Chem Ecol. 1994; 20(4):1667–1676.

Leal WS, Hasegawa M, Sawada M, Ono M, Ueda Y. Identification and field evaluation of Anomala octiescostata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) sex pheromone. J Chem Ecol. 1994 Jul;20(7):1643-55. doi: 10.1007/BF02059886. PubMed PMID: 24242657.

Leal WS, Bento JS, Vilela EF, Della Lucia TC. Female sex pheromone of the longhorn beetle Migdolus fryanus Westwood: N-(2′S)-methylbutanoyl 2-methylbutylamine. Experientia. 1994; 50(9):853–856.

Leal WS, Ono M, Hasegawa M, Sawada M. Kairomone from dandelion,Taraxacum officinale, attractant for scarab beetle Anomala octiescostataJournal of chemical ecology. 1994; 20(7):1697–1704.

Leal WS, Sawada M, Hasegawa M. The scarab beetle Anomala cuprea utilizes the sex pheromone of Popillia japonica as a minor component. Journal of chemical ecology. 1993; 19(7):1303–1313.

Leal WS(Z)- and (E) Tetradee-7-en-2-one, a new type of sex pheromone from the oriental beetle. Naturwissenschaften. 1993; 80:86-87.

Leal WS, Mochizuki E. Sex pheromone reception in the scarab beetle Anomala cuprea Enantiomeric discrimination by sensilla placodea.Naturwissenschaften. 1993; 80(6):278–281.

Leal WS, Sawada M, Matsuyama S, Kuwahara Y, Hasegawa M. Unusual periodicity of sex pheromone production in the large black chafer Holotrichia parallelaJ Chem Ecol. 1993 Jul;19(7):1381-91. doi: 10.1007/BF00984883. PubMed PMID: 24249169.

Hasegawa M, Leal WS, Sawada M. Field evaluation of Anomala schonfeldti Ohaus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) synthetic sex pheromone. J Chem Ecol. 1993 Jul;19(7):1453-9. doi: 10.1007/BF00984889. PubMed PMID: 24249175.

Leal WS, Sawada M, Hasegawa M. The scarab beetle Anomala daimiana utilizes a blend of two other Anomala spp. Sex pheromones. Naturwissenschaften. 1993; 80(4):181–183.

Kuwahara Y, Leal WS, Kurosa, Sato M, Matsuyama S, Suzuki T. Chemical Ecology on Astigmatid Mites XXXIII. Identification of (Z, Z)-6, 9-Heptadecadiene in the Secretion of Carpoglyphus lactis (Acarina, Carpoglyphidae) and its Distribution among Astigmatid mites. Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan. 1992; 1(2):95-104.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Matsuyama S, Suzuki T, Ozawa T. GC-FTIR potential for structure elucidation. Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society. 1992; 3:25-29.

Leal WS, Matsuyama S, Kuwahara Y, Wakamura S, Hasegawa M. An amino acid derivative as the sex pheromone of a scarab beetle. Naturwissenschaften. 1992; 79(4):184–185.

Leal WS, Hasegawa M, Sawada M. Identification of Anomala schonfeldti sex pheromone by high-resolution GC-behavior bioassay. Naturwissenschaften. 1992; 79(11):518-519.

Leal WS, Hasegawa M, Mochizuki F, Yasuda T. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of sex pheromone(s) in Anomala schonfeldti Ohaus (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 1992; 27:592-594.

Leal WS, Kadosawa T. (E)-2-Hexenyl Hexanoate, the Alarm Pheromone of the Bean Bug Riptortus clavatus (Heteroptera: Alydidae). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1992 Jan;56(6):1004-5. doi: 10.1271/bbb.56.1004. PubMed PMID: 27280844.

Leal WS, Mochizuki F, Wakamura S, Yasuda T. Electroantennographic Detection of Anomala cuprea HOPE (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) Sex Pheromone. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 1992; 27(1):289-291.

Leal WS(R,Z)-5-(−)-(oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one, the sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Anomala cupreaNaturwissenschaften. 1991; 78(11):521–523.

Leal WS, Kuwahra Y, Sukuzi T. Hexyl 2-Formyl-3-hydroxybenzoate, a Fungitoxic Cuticular Constituent of the Bulb Mite Rhizoglyphus RobiniAgricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1990; 54(10):2593-2597.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T. Robinal, a highly conjugated monoterpenoid from the mite Rhizoglyphus robiniNaturwissenschaften. 1990; 77(8):387–388.

Kuwahara Y, Leal WS, Suzuki T. Pheromone study on astigmatid mites: XXVI. Comparison of volatile components between Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Astigmata, Pyroglyphidae). Medical Entomology and Zoology. 1990; 41(1):23-28.

Leal WS, Mochizuki F. Chemoreception in astigmatid mites. Naturwissenschaften. 1990 Dec;77(12):593-4. doi: 10.1007/bf01133733. PubMed PMID: 2074902.

Kuwahara Y, Leal WS, Suzuki T, Maeda M, Masutani T. Antifungal activity of Caloglyphus polyphyllae sex pheromone and other mite exudates. Pheromone study on astigmatid mites, XXIV. Naturwissenschaften. 1989 Dec;76(12):578-9. doi: 10.1007/bf00462869. PubMed PMID: 2622481.

Kuwahara Y, Leal WS, Nakano Y, Kaneko Y, Nakao H, Suzuki T. Pheromone study on astigmatid mites. XXIII: Identification of the alarm pheromone on the acarid mite, Tyrophagus neiswanderi and species specificities of alarm pheromones among four species of the same genus. Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. 1989; 24(4):424-429.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Nakano Y, Nakao H, Suzuki T. 2-(E)-(4-Mcthyl-3-pentenyl)-butenedial, α-Acaridial, a Novel Monoterpene from the Acarid Mite Tyrophagus perniciosus (Acarina, Acaridae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1989; 53(4):1193-1196.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T, Kurosa K. The Alarm Pheromone of the Mite Suidasia medanensis OUDEMANS, 1924 (Acariformes, Suidasiidae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1989; 53(10):2703-2709.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T, Nakao H. Chemical Taxonomy of Economically Important Tyrophagus Mites (Acariformes, Acaridae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1989; 53(12):3279-3284.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T, Kurosa K. β-acaridial, the sex pheromone of the acarid mite Caloglyphus polyphyllae. Naturwissenschaften. 1989; 76(7):332–333.

T, Haga K, Leal WS, Kodama S, Kuwahara Y. Secretion of thrips. IV. Identification of b-acaradial from three gall-forming thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeotripidae). Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. 1989; 24:222-228.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T, Nakano Y, Nakao H. Identification and synthesis of 2,3-epoxyneral, a novel monoterpene from the acarid mite Tyrophagus perniciosus (Acarina, Acaridae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1989; 53(1):295-298.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T. 2(E)-(4-Methyl-3-pentenylidene)-butanedial, β-Acaridial: A New Type of Monoterpene from the Mold Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acarina, Acaridae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1989; 53(3):875-878.

Leal WS, Nakano Y, Kuwahara Y, Nakao H, Suzuki T. Pheromone Study of Acarid Mites XVII: Identification of 2-Hydroxy-6-Methyl Benzaldehyde as the Alarm Pheromone of the Acarid Mite Tyrophagus perniciosus (Acarina: Acaridae), and Its Distribution among Related Mites. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 1988; 23(4):422-427.

Leal WS, Kuwahara Y, Suzuki T. Neryl Myristate from the Acarid Mite, Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Acarina, Acaridae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1988; 52(5):1299-1300.

Kuwahara Y, Leal WS, Akimoto K, Nakano Y, Suzuki T. Pheromone Study on Acarid Mites XVI. Identification of Hexyl Linolate in Acarid Mites and its Distribution among the Genus TyrophagusApplied Entomology and Zoology. 1988; 23(3):338-344.

Kuwahara Y, Akimoto K, Leal WS, Nakao H, Suzuki T. Isopiperitenone: A New Alarm Pheromone of the Acarid Mite, Tyrophagus similis (Acarina, Acaridae). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1987; 51(12):3441-3442.